1 Raw Stock

Skins arrive either direct from abattoir, salted loose from Hide markets or salted baled from overseas

2 Soak

Re-hydration in warm soapy water

3 Raw Rounding

Long pieces are trimmed off by hand

4 1st Fleshing

Excess Fat and connective tissue is removed mechanically

5 Wash

The second wash cleans and opens up the skin for tanning

6 2nd Fleshing

A final mechanical cleaning of the flesh layer

7 Pickling & Tanning

The skins are first soaked in Sulphuric or Formic acid followed by tanning agents – Aluminium, Trivalent Chromium, or Syntans (modified aldehydes)

8 Wet Wheeling

The wet tanned skins for Doubleface are passed over a carborundum wheel

9 Hydroing

Excess water is removed in a centrifuge – a large spin dryer

10 Hook Drying

For the first drying skins are loosely hooked up and gently dried in warm air. Basic rugs will go direct to Toggle Drying

11 Cageing

The moisture content is important, conditioned skins are tumbled in a cage to soften

12 Staking

Mechanical staking stretches and softens the skin

13 Degreasing

Natural fat (tallow) remaining within the skin is removed by solvent degreasing (dry cleaning)

14 Dry Wheeling

An alternative leather cleaning process for skins that have not been
wet wheeled

15 Drum Dyeing

Doubleface selections are dyed, wool first then suede, in large mixer drums

16 Hydroing

Again, excess moisture is removed

17 Toggle Drying

The skins are now stretched out on frames with clips (toggles) and hot air dried in 'cabinets'.

18 Stoning

Doubleface skins have the suede nap restored by a Staking machine with a carborundum head

19 Ironing

The fleece is mechanically teased and polished on a hot rotary iron. Silky, fur finishes can be achieved. Alternatively, natural curl can be restored for character wool breeds

20 Finish Shearing

The pile depth may be adjusted for the variety of sheepskin product applications 9mm to 30mm

21 Inspection & dispatch

Finished skins are inspected, lightly trimmed if necessary. Rugs are then packed by size.

22 Pin Wheel measuring

Sheared skins can be measured to provide a leather area for invoicing and manufacturing